2nd ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTING AND ICT RESEARCH - SREC 06
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|Part One: Advanced System Modelling|
|Andrew Vince||Indexing a Discrete Global Grid. |Abstract
In an increasingly interconnected world, the development of computer friendly systems for the display and analysis of global data is an important issue. This paper concerns a method for computerrepresentation and manipulation of global data based on multi-resolution subdivisions of regular polyhedra. In particular, the problem of efficiently indexing the cells of such a discrete global grid is addressed.
|Janet Aisbett||Information Quality and Information Systems Success. |Abstract
Information systems (IS) failure has been a concern of IS practitioners and researchers for more than 40 years. Those years have seen continuing change in the technology and application of computerized IS. The question arises as to whether failure to achieve expectations of stakeholders is because, or in spite, of the changing environment. This paper reviews key models of IS success in the context of the prevailing IS. It identifies information quality as a constant factor in the models, and poor content quality as a continuing contributor to perceptions of failure. We conclude that fundamental research into information quality is still needed, and provide an example of such investigations concerning new forms of representation.Information systems (IS) failure has been a concern of IS practitioners and researchers for more than 40 years. Those years have seen continuing change in the technology and application of computerized IS. The question arises as to whether failure to achieve expectations of stakeholders is because, or in spite, of the changing environment. This paper reviews key models of IS success in the context of the prevailing IS. It identifies information quality as a constant factor in the models, and poor content quality as a continuing contributor to perceptions of failure. We conclude that fundamental research into information quality is still needed, and provide an example of such investigations concerning new forms of representation.
|Paul Ssemaluulu and Ddembe Williams||A System Dynamics Tool for Evaluating IT Investment Projects. |Abstract
Systems dynamics modeling is the technique of constructing and running a model of an abstract system in order to study its behavior without disrupting the environment of the real system. The processsimulated in this study, that is, evaluation of IT investment projects, is one of increasing importance as it has been observed that 90% of all senior IS managers have no idea how to determine the alue of information systems. In an era where cost overruns and cancelled projects cost millions of dollars, a simulation tool which can rapidly calculate the benefits to be derived from an information system can e very useful. The existing literature identifies noticeable gaps between academic theories, commercially available methodologies and actual evaluation practices promoted by organizational rules and tructures, informal practices implemented by stakeholders and academic recommendations which are not used in practice. Problems relating to evaluation of IT investment projects were established-. Understanding hese problems would in the long run reduce losses due to failed IT investments. In this study, five different methodologies were investigated taking into account the suitability or goodness of the framework, ias, focus and complexity. The System Dynamics Methodology was found to be the best as the others had serious shortcomings. A model derived from earlier work by Seddon et al., as well as Delone and clean was used to construct a dynamic hypothesis that helps to realize the interrelationships between the critical variables. A causal loop diagram derived from the dynamic hypothesis was also constructed. simulation tool for evaluating IT investment projects was developed to help managers cut down on time spent debating investment decisions, cut down on costs, reduce information overload and helpresearchers evaluate related problems. The simulation tool was used to analyze how different variables interact to affect the total benefits of an information system. It was observed that only a stronginteraction of people, information, and technology can improve business performance, and consequently lead to Information Systems success.
|John Ngubiri and Mario van Vliet||The Influence of Job Physical Characteristics on their Schedulability in Multi-cluster Systems. |Abstract
Performance (and sensitivity) studies in parallel job scheduling mostly use average values of the measurement metrics over the entire job stream. This does not give an idea of relative job performance (hencestarvation) and sensitivity to scheduler parameters. Some jobs can therefore be easily starved without being detected. We investigate the influence of jobs’ physical characteristics on theirschedulability in a multi cluster system using the Fit Processor First Served (FPFS) scheduler. We also investigate their relative strength in determining schedulability as well as their sensitivity toscheduler parameters. We deduce the implication of the findings in a practical scheduling scenario
|Venansius Baryamureeba||On Solving Large-scale Linear Systems Arising from Interior Point Methods for Linear Programming. |Abstract
Every Newton step in an interior point method for linear programming requires a solution of a symmetric indefinite system of linear equations. The most expensive part of an interior point method iscomputing the search direction by solving one or more of the linear systems. Such systems are indefinite and can be written in symmetric form, which is known as an augmented system. A common approach ininteriorpoint solvers for linear programming reduces the augmented system to a smaller positive definite one, called a normal equation system. Both direct methods and iterative methods have been used inthe solution of the linear systems. The success of implementations using iterative methods depends on how to choose the appropriate preconditioner since the matrix system usually becomes ill-conditioned as the optimal solution of the problem is approached. In this paper we propose a strategy for solving the linear systems arising from interior point methods for linear programming. We also propose how to construct a preconditioner for the iterative approach for solving linear systems.
|Peter Waiganjo Wagacha, Dennis Chege||Adaptive and Optimisation Predictive Text Entry for Short Message Service (Sms). |Abstract
The ability to enter text on phones is crucial for utilizing the Short Message Service (SMS) of digital cellular networks. Standard 12-button phone keypads are not naturally suited for text entry as each button on them encodes three or more alphabetic letters. Various techniques have been proposed and implemented to improve text entry tasks. One such technique is predictive text entry. In this paper we describe the development of a generic mobile phone predictive text application. We have tried it on some local Kenyan languages. It is implemented as a word weighting system that is based on the sigmoid function. It initially relies on the natural word frequency of a given language. We also present an adaptive learning model for improving text entry speed that incorporates a specific user’s word usage habits. Our results indicate an improvement in the performance of the developed system as evaluated and compared to other current predictive text techniques.
|Ddembe Williams||Revisiting Dynamic Synthesis Methodology: A Reference Theoretical Framework and Tool for Business Process Modelling and Analysis. |Abstract
The case for integrating research methods generally, and more specifically that for combining system dynamics and case study research approaches in business process modelling is strong. Yet, research designs that extensively combine both system dynamics modelling and case study in process modelling are rare. This paper aims to provide a useful and systematic reference point for researchers who wish to work in the business process modelling and generally to encourage careful work on the conceptualisation and execution of Dynamic Synthesis methodology in business process and to a wider process-modelling field. The paper suggests that the potential usefulness of the Dynamic Synthesis Methodology is in aiding researchers and managers in improving both building and testing theories in the understanding business processes and strategic modelling and analysis.
|H.A. (Erik) Proper, P. van Bommel, S.J.B.A. Hoppenbrouwers and Th.P. van der Weide||A Fundamental View on the Act of Modelling. |Abstract
This paper is part of an ongoing research effort to better understand the role of models and modeling in the information system development life-cycle. During this life-cycle, several models are produced, ranging from high level sketches, via conceptual models to source code. This paper is part of an ongoing research effort to better understand the act of modeling. We describe a formal framework by which the process of modeling can be regarded as involving the selection of more and more refined interpretations in terms of the underlying meta-model of the modeling language used. The resulting framework will be used to create a laboratory setup in which we can consequently more closely study (and support) modeling processes.
|Part Two: Natural Language Processing|
|Jackson Muhirwe||Kinyarwanda Speech Recognition for Automatic Voice Dialling Systems. |Abstract
Speech recognition tools exist for English, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian and many languages of Eastern Europe and Asia. There are barely no tools for African languages and other third world countries’ languages. In this paper we present the process of building a speech recognizer for Kinyarwanda language. Two different corpora were collected of audio recordings of indigenous Kinyarwanda language speakers, in which subjects read aloud numeric digits. One of the collected corpora contained the trainig data and the other the testing data. The system was implemented using the HMM toolkit HTK by training HMMs of the words making the vocabulary on the training data. The trained system was tested on data other than the training data and results revealed that 94.47% of the tested data were correctly recognized. The developed system can be used by developers and researchers interested in speech recognition for Kinyarwanda language and any other related African language. The findings of the study can be generalized to cater for large vocabularies and for continuous speech recognition.
|Katherine W. Getao and Evans K. Miriti||Computational Modelling in Bantu Language. |Abstract
The inability to communicate with human beings in their own language may be one of the biggest barriers to the adoption of information and communication technology in the third world and the bridging of he digital divide. At the same time natural language processing is one of the most complex computational problems that have faced computer scientists. A number of approaches to addressing natural language understanding have been adopted over the years. While all these approaches have merit, it is clear that they have been most useful for languages that have a large knowledge base in terms of syntactic information, combined with extensive textual corpora. In the case of most Bantu languages these resources are not available now, and are unlikely to become available in the near future. Yet these languages are spoken by over 100 million people spread over most of Sub-Saharan Africa. In this research we note that Bantu languages have common logical forms and computational structures, and which have utility in semantic processing of natural language. We propose a derivational approach to discovering the structure of compound Bantu words that does not depend on large amounts of prior knowledge. This technique is amenable to machine learning methods such as reinforcement learning. Through this we demonstrate a new approach to natural language processing that may be of specific application to Bantu languages and to other language groups with a strong inflectional strategy.
|Part Three: Computer Networks and Applications|
|Julianne Sansa, Arpad Szomoru and J.M. van der Hulst||On Network Measurement and Monitoring of End-to-End Paths Used for E-VLBI. |Abstract
This paper presents the bottlenecks currently limiting the transfer speeds of astronomical data from radio telescopes across the world over high speed links to the central processing centre in the Netherlands. The processed data is used to produce images which are used by radio astronomers. The image sensitivity of continuum observations scales with the data rate, so the higher the data rate, the more sensitive these observations will be. The required high data rates should be attainable on these network links, however it is not the case. The aim of our study was therefore to uncover the prevailing bottlenecks and propose solutions to address them. The bottlenecks were identified by conducting data transfer tests over these links under various network condition. We also provide an explanation for the existing bottlenecks as well as potential solutions to overcome them.
|Eric Ayienga, Elijah Opiyo, William Okello-Odongo, Kate Getao, Bernard Manderick and Anne Nowé||Multiagent Systems for Distributed Resource Allocation. |Abstract
Wireless grids introduce additional challenges to the challenges already existing in resources allocation in the wired grid environment. Economic approaches and Multiagent Systems (MASs) are brought into one framework to solve problems of resource allocation and efficient QoS provisioning. Wireless grids are considered as complex systems with economies where multiple applications (consumers) compete for resources and services from network providers (suppliers). Resources are priced by suppliers based on demand, and users buy resources to satisfy their QoS needs. Optimization is done on network QoS parameters.
|J. Kasigwa, Venansius Baryamureeba and Ddembe Williams||Efficient Dynamic Admission Control for End-to-End Delay Guarantees in IP Networks. |Abstract
In networks that support Quality of Service (QoS), an admission control algorithm determines whether or not a new traffic flow can be admitted to the network such that all users will receive their required performance. Such an algorithm is a key component of future IP networks as it determines the extent to which network resources are utilized and whether the promised QoS parameters are actually delivered. Our goals in this paper are threefold. First, we describe and classify a broad set of proposed admission control algorithms. Second, we evaluate the accuracy of these algorithms via experiments using both on-off sources and long traces of compressed video; we compare the admissible regions and QoS parameters predicted by our implementations of the algorithms with those obtained from trace-driven simulations. Finally, we identify the key aspects of an admission control algorithm necessary for achieving a high degree of accuracy and end-to-end QoS.
|Rehema Baguma, Patrick Ogao and Tom Wanyama||Towards Web Design Frameworks (Wdfs). |Abstract
Web Information Systems has become an important area of research and practice, with the continued growth and use of the world wide web (web) and Internet technology. The use of the Internet and the web is now common in government, industry, health, commerce and education. The increasing rate of internet/web usage calls for efficiency and effectiveness in the development and deployment of web systems to provide high quality systems in the shortest time possible. One approach to this has been the web design frameworks proposed by Schwabe, Rossi, and colleagues over the last decade. This paper looks at what is entailed in the concept of web design frameworks, and considers their importance as a formal method of web application development.
|Narcis T. Rwangoga and Martin Ngobye||The Future of Intelligent Networks in Developing Countries. |Abstract
Telecommunication networks have become important not only for the academic community but also for users in business and industry. As globalization takes shape, this trend applies to both developed and developing countries. Unfortunately for many developing countries, the telecommunication networks are still dominated by the public switched telephone networks (PSTN), which are not able to support rising demand for services through networked systems. Innovative solutions have to be devised to plan, design and implement telecommunication networks that are able to seamlessly provide services demanded through the network today. This applies to both wired and wireless networks. The demand for network based services has risen in developing countries, considering how wireless technologies for cellular and personal communications have been extended to most areas in developing countries. Intelligent Networks (IN) is a promise that countries which are implementing telecommunication networks can use to deliver network based services. In this paper, we explore and discuss why IN provides the promise and requirements for their implementation. The objective is to provide a basis a tool for telecommunication network planers and implementers can use for IN structure implementation in developing countries where resources are highly constrained.
|Part Four: ICT and Legal Applications|
|Habibu Atib and John Zeleznikow||Identifying Sensitive Knowledge for Law Enforcement Agencies. |Abstract
Law Enforcement and Intelligence agencies need to effectively manage knowledge to further their goals of crime detection and prevention. Techniques such as computer profiling, link analysis and Knowledge Discovery from Databases are being used to assist these goals. Since the terrorist attacks in the United States of America, on 11 September 2001, there has been an increased concern about security. This has led to a fundamental change in the balance between the security needs of the community and the civil liberties of the individual. Whilst Knowledge Discovery from Databases can indicate patterns of deviant behaviour and indicate potential criminals, these results indicate patterns and not evidence. In this paper we examine the ethical issues caused through the use of crime data mining. We shall introduce the notion of Knowledge Discovery from Databases in relation to Law Enforcement agencies and consider previous research such as Link Analysis and crime detection tools such as COPLINK CONNECT and FLINTS. We introduce several approaches for managing security knowledge including the concept of sensitivity management.
|Euphraith Muthoni Masinde||Using JAD to Bridge the Design-Reality Gaps; a Major Cause of IS Projects’ Failures in the Developing Countries. |Abstract
Information Systems (IS) projects failure is ‘a gap between what the users expect from an IS and how well these expectations are met by the perceived performance of the delivered system’. IS projects fail more than they succeed. IS failure rates in the Developing Countries (DCs) are much higher than those in the Industrialised Countries (ICs) because among other reasons, the gaps tend to be exaggerated by the huge difference between the ideas/IS projects and the political /behavioural realities in the DCs. These chronic failure rates have continued to place the DCs on the wrong side of the digital divide, turning IS projects and ICTs in general into a technology of inequality. Solution: employment of Joint Application Development (JAD); a software development methodology that will involve the stakeholders in the entire process of IS implementation. This paper explains how JAD can be used to eradicate most of the causes of IS projects’ failures in the DCs using the University of Nairobi case study. The CHAOS Ten Success factors have been employed to analyze data for nine IS projects.
|Fredrick R. Okwangale and Patrick Ogao||Survey of Data Mining Methods for Crime Analysis and Visualisation. |Abstract
Crime prevention is a primary concern of police as they perform their central role of protecting the lives and property of citizens. But the police force is usually relatively very small compared to the crime prone population they have to protect making them more of a reactive rather than preventive force. Police often have at their disposal vast amounts of least utilised crime data (such as crime incident reports) which if analysed could reveal some hidden information such as crime committing trends useful in crime prevention. Use of Information Systems techniques such as data mining and Geographic Information Systems for analysing these data is promising in boosting the police efforts. This paper reviews the applicability of various data mining methods and Geographic Information Systems in crime analysis and visualization in mainly poor planned settings characterised by missing electronic data a common phenomena in the developing countries like Uganda. The focus is on criminality of places rather than the tracing of individual criminals. The review tends to reveal that a combination of Geographic Information Systems and data mining techniques that can work under unclean data are best suited for use in the poorly planned settings.
|Joseph Muliaro Wafula, Anthony J. Rodrigues and Nick G. Wanjohi||Informing Regional ICT Policy: Case Study of Trends in ICT Indicators of OECD, EU, COMESA and EAC. |Abstract
Economic and social transformation of nations has been brought about by technology. Both policy analysts and academic researchers have been interested in understanding and articulating these phenomena especially, when governments are constantly needing information about the performance of their own country relative to their partners and competitors. Several methods are currently in use including use of e-readiness indices. However, the criteria of generating the e-readiness indices are not uniform. For one to produce an e-readiness index, at least two indicators have to be summed, subtracted, multiplied or divided yet research has shown that of now there are no meaningful theories that justify such algorithms. To make it worse, the selection of the ingredients of the e-readiness index depends heavily on the value judgment of the scholars as well as on the availability of the data. As it stands now, one of the best options for informing policy makers and governments is to use indicators. This paper discusses trends and analysis of ICT indicators such as mobile phone subscribers, mobile communications revenue, annual telecommunication investment, international bandwidth and mass media usage in relation to ICT policy, e-strategy and enabling environment for OECD, EU, COMESA and EAC based on the 2005 ITU and DHS databases. Correlation analysis among indicators was done in attempt to establish emerging commonalities and differences among these regions and the accompanying lessons noted.The future of wireless telecommunications that are converging with mobile computing devices in offering Internet connectivity and access to most COMESA countries including EAC are discussed.
|Part Five: E-Commerce|
|Joseph M. Kizza||Bridging Africa’s Digital Divide: Building Sustainable ICT Infrastructures. |Abstract
|Shushma Patel and Dilip Patel||An Organisational Climate Awareness Toolkit for Nurturing the Effectiveness of Team/Group Interactions. |Abstract
The development of innovative systems solutions for complex problems remains a challenge. To be able to develop modern information systems, we must include the use of multi-disciplinary teams, such as technical and non-technical specialists. Team members must work together and IS professionals can no longer work independently to design their own information system, but instead need to carefully include the users in the process. One area that needs to be considered carefully is how the IS project teams are created. A major factor in successful IS solutions is awareness of the organisation climate. In this paper, we investigate organisation climate, and propose three levels of organisation climate and demonstrate that nurturing the organisational climate awareness helps increase and improve the effectiveness of team/group interactions. We discuss our findings of studying organisational climate issues in several commercial organisations. We also outline an organisational awareness toolkit.
|Anthony J. Rodrigues||ICTs in Developing Countries: Contexts, Challenges and Interventions. |Abstract
Internet connectivity requires more than just simply installing phone cables or wireless networks. In the case of Africa it also requires overcoming specific barriers. Some of these are a lack of: information coordination, coordination of physical connections and technical personnel cooperation. Furthermore this is exacerbated by telecommunications monopolies and obsolete regulatory frameworks, limited involvement of research institutions in network building and diffusion, and language barriers. The world is undergoing a major change in learning. Internet technologies have fundamentally altered the technological and economic landscapes. Successful e-learning depends on strategies that optimize use of the technology within the cultural context of a nation. There is need to lower the overall costs of creating a competitive workforce and to do this continuously on a 24/7 basis for people specially those in rural areas. We also examine the current problems in the establishment and use of information networks and explore ways in which these valuable networks can be sustained so as to exploit more fully their potential.
|Benjamin Kanagwa and Ezra K, Mugiza||Architectural Building Blocks For Reusable Service Oriented Architecture With Integrated Transaction Processing. |Abstract
With increase in the number of complex services, their interaction, performance, quality of service, security and composition have become critical issues in Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). At the same time, the structure of services, their exposure and management reflect key architecture and design decisions that enable Service Oriented Computing (SOC). The layout of architectural elements plays a significant role in mitigating these critical issues. Services typically encapsulate some business activity, and their interactions directly imply business interactions. We note that most SOA issues are native to a specific architecture and are influenced by the transactional interactions within the architecture. In this paper, we therefore propose a novel top-level architecture that knightly integrates transaction-processing capabilities into SOA. The contribution of this paper is a generic high level architecture that specifies the structural elements for transaction centered service oriented architecture.
|Ali Ndiwalana, Steve Esselaar, F.F. Tusubira and Christoph Stork||Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs): Findings from Uganda. |Abstract
The potential contribution of information and communication technologies (ICTs) to the development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) can only be assessed by first understanding current information practices and needs in such enterprises. This paper reports findings from a questionnaire and interview survey of 351 SMEs in Uganda with a varying degree of formality. The SMEs were randomly selected from Kampala (central), FortPortal (west), Lira (north), and Mbale (east). We find that informal businesses have a higher profitability in terms of fixed assets employed than semi-formal ones, which in turn have a higher profitability than formal businesses. The mobile phone has overtaken the computer as a tool in supporting the running of a business in spite of the lack of well-designed phone or SMS based business information systems. While we have data on ICT possession and usage within SMEs, we still don’t have a good understanding about their potential impact to help make more useful interventions and better justify their costly investments. We would like to avoid the usual techno-centric approach where technology is given a pedestal and instead leverage the technology in a user-centric manner by first understanding the entrepreneurs behind the SMEs, their information practices, the needs that dictate the way they operate as well as the environments in which they operate. This survey is a first attempt in this direction.
|Part Six: ICT and Education|
|Benedict Oyo and Ddembe Williams||An Exploration of the Factors That Affect Quality Assurance Decision-making in Higher Education. |Abstract
Increased use of quality assurance in the higher education context has made a profound impact in the areas of research, teaching and administration. In response to the necessity for reforming higher education system in line with the needs and expectations of the community and business sector, new approaches and quality assurance practices have been sought in higher education. This paper argues that system dynamics modelling approach is a valuable alternative for quality assurance research in higher education. This approach is emphasized owing to the fact that, a greater portion of university quality problems and their solutions do not have quantitative foundations mostly because such systems involve qualitative elements that are difficult to quantify and model using other approaches. A framework is used to demonstrate the theoretical value of system dynamics modelling in combining diverse factors responsible for quality assurance in higher education and arriving at a consistent decision about the quality of awards.
|J.K. Njenga and A.J. Bytheway||Using Developmental Research to Design a Web Instructional Design Subsystem. |Abstract
Technology and specifically the web-based, is a moving target – web-based learning and teaching technology is being used and developed at rapidly. Diverse methods that are adaptable to changing features of technology as well as a guiding methodologies to select which technology features should be fixed or flexible in the design are. This paper reports on a process and findings of using development research design and methodology to design an instructional design subsystem. The development research used involves a review of the literature with the aim of exploring, analyzing, integrating and synthesizing the broad field of learning and instructional theories, paradigms and best practices with the design of the instructional design subsystem. The complacent cases are abstracted and used in the design of the subsystem. The research design perspective enables making of principled design approaches informed by knowledge of instructors’ particular generalizing processes and the research in instructional design. This paper also discusses how the subsystem can be improved by rigorous attention to the formulation of theory, if more iterations are used, each leading to revision, refinement and modification of the instructional design subsystem and perhaps increasing the appeal of the theory in-use.
|Fredrick R. Okwangale and Patrick Ogao||Survey of Data Mining Methods for Crime Analysis and Visualisation. |Abstract
Crime prevention is a primary concern of police as they perform their central role of protecting the lives and property of citizens. But the police force is usually relatively very small compared to the crime prone population they have to protect making them more of a reactive rather than preventive force. Police often have at their disposal vast amounts of least utilised crime data (such as crime incident reports) which if analysed could reveal some hidden information such as crime committing trends useful in crime prevention. Use of Information Systems techniques such as data mining and Geographic Information Systems for analysing these data is promising in boosting the police efforts. This paper reviews the applicability of various data mining methods and Geographic Information Systems in crime analysis and visualization in mainly poor planned settings characterised by missing electronic data a common phenomena in the developing countries like Uganda. The focus is on criminality of places rather than the tracing of individual criminals. he review tends to reveal that a combination of Geographic Information Systems and data mining techniques that can work under unclean data are best suited for use in the poorly planned settings.
|Elijah I. Omwenga||ICT for Educational Use: Cases of Implementing a Partnership Approach Model for Reaching Target Groups. |Abstract
The question that comes into the minds of most of the universities in Africa today is on how to use ICTs to strengthen their resolve to reach out to potential client students who did not make it to the higher learning institutions through the normal school progression programmes. One can identify two major phases to dealing with this issue. First, there is need for awareness and advocacy, seminars and workshops, sensitisation on the relationship between ICTs and wealth creation and training of stakeholders and trainers. Phase two will largely involve taking the programmes to the people – the students and target groups. In this paper we describe a proposed partnership model that can be applied to help realise the goals of effectively reaching the target groups. The model recognises a three-stage pyramidal communication model involving target groups and partners, Networking and Collaboration and finally policy strategising on thematic areas. The application of this model and implications in the use of ICTs for improving teaching and learning especially among women have been analysed and suggestions for improvements made.
|Collins Gyavira Rubanju Asifiwe||The Impact of ICT on Universities: Classroom/Lecture Theatre Design
and Curriculum Delivery. |Abstract
Empowering learners to engage in meaningful, challenging and enlightening tasks is the aim of all educators and Information and Communication Technology has the potential to play a powerful role in every university- both inside and outside lecture room/classroom. Institutional responses to ICT influences have inevitably brought about changes in the following areas: how teachers redesign and present the curriculum, in the curriculum itself, in the uses made of resources and the way current lecture rooms/classrooms and buildings are being reconfigured. This study utilized a qualitative research methodology and was carried out in selected universities to assess the impact of Information and communication technologies on class/lecture room design and curriculum delivery. There are a variety of philosophical approaches to the integration of ICT. In addition to that, a range of practical solutions in overcoming the universal problems of staff and student access to computers, professional development for educators, and internet access was revealed. It is also recognized that rapid advances in technology will inevitably “age” traditional observations in educational delivery of curriculum and classroom design. Overall, there were far sights by lecturers, and administrators creating learning opportunities for students using ICT.
|Madara Ogot||African Virtual Environment Collaborative (Afro-velab). |Abstract
The over-capacity of telecommunications bandwidth in most of the world, coupled with the emergence of sophisticated workflow software has enabled business to move operations to where the talent is creating a 24 hour global enterprise. Sub-Saharan Africa (excluding South Africa), especially Science and Technology (S&T) research institutions are yet to take advantage of the immense collaborative synergies the information age has brought. This paper describes the African Virtual Environment Collaborative (AFRO-VELAB) that aims to remedy this shortfall by providing a medium where African S&T researchers can readily form research teams – based on areas of expertise – and take on sophisticated collaborative research projects that each could never attempt by going it alone.
|Part Seven: ICT and Gender|
|Aramanzan Madanda||ICT Liberalisation and Changing Gender Relations in Contemporary
Uganda: A Research Agenda. |Abstract
Growth and use of modern Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Uganda is comparatively recent. Rapid growth has been made over the last five years. Uganda’s ICT initiatives are implemented under the so called “private sector led” policy framework. The objective of this paper is to identify research needs in the area of gender and ICT in Uganda, especially in relation to adoption/non adoption and changing gender relations at individual and community levels. The paper takes a gender perspective in discussing the current Ugandan ICT policy framework and ICT diffusion and adoption. It draws on arguments advanced by liberal economic theory, the theory of technology diffusion and adoption and feminist theory to illuminate key gender and ICT research issues in Uganda.
|Part Eight: Bio-Informatics|
Gilbert Maiga and Ddembe Williams
|Towards a Reusable Ontology Framework for Biological Information Integration. |Abstract
Reusable knowledge structures are becoming increasingly important in the task of information integration. In biological and clinical research where vast amounts of data being generated and need to be shared, the task of developing infrastructures for information integration is an important one. In this paper, we provide the research background and approach to an ongoing study that aims to develop a reusable framework for the integration of biological and clinical research data. Such a framework shall provide users with the ability to access dispersed sources of biological and clinical data. The theoretical basis for the reusable framework is given. The proposed approach for developing and validation of the framework using the Protégé ontology development environment is also outlined. The study contributes to scientific knowledge by defining ontology structure that integrates biological and clinical information. This framework will be useful for removing the barriers between clinical and biological information for clinicians and the biological research community. The validated tool may also be used for training and extension of skills by researchers and clinicians.